Enjoy Your Present

It will take just 30 seconds to read this and change your thinking.

Two men, both seriously ill, occupied the same hospital room.

One man was allowed to sit up in his bed for an hour each afternoon to help drain the fluid from his lungs.

His bed was next to the room ' s only window.

The other man had to spend all his time flat on his back.

The men talked for hours on end. They spoke of their wives and families, their homes, their jobs, their involvement in the military service, where they had been on vacation.

Every afternoon, when the man in the bed by the window could sit up, he would pass the time by describing to his roommate all the things he could see outside the window.

The man in the other bed began to live for those one hour periods where his world would be broadened and enlivened by all the activity and color of the world outside.

The window overlooked a park with a lovely lake. Ducks and swans played on the water while children sailed their model boats. Young lovers walked arm in arm amidst flowers of every color and a fine view of the city skyline could be seen in the distance.

As the man by the window described all this in exquisite details, the man on the other side of the room would close his eyes and imagine this picturesque scene.

One warm afternoon, the man by the window described a parade passing by. Although the other man could not hear the band - he could see it in his mind ' s eye as the gentleman by the window portrayed it with descriptive words.

Days, weeks and months passed.

One morning, the day nurse arrived to bring water for their baths only to find the lifeless body of the man by the window, who had died peacefully in his sleep. She was saddened and called the hospital attendants to take the body away.

As soon as it seemed appropriate, the other man asked if he could be moved next to the window. The nurse was happy to make the switch, and after making sure he was comfortable, she left him alone.

Slowly, painfully, he propped himself up on one elbow to take his first look at the real world outside. He strained to slowly turn to look out the window besides the bed.

It faced a blank wall.

The man asked the nurse what could have compelled his deceased roommate who had described such wonderful things outside this window.

The nurse responded that the man was blind and could not even see the wall. She said, "Perhaps he just wanted to encourage you."


There is tremendous happiness in making others happy, despite our own situations.

Shared grief is half the sorrow, but happiness when shared, is doubled.

If you want to feel rich, just count all the things you have that money can ' t buy.

"Today is a gift, that is why it is called The Present"

Candles for Guns

The lit candle is the new social weapon of the middle class.Candles for jessica shot down for refusing a drink,candles for mehar bhargava shot down for protesting against eve-teasers.Outrage against blatant and heinous crime.Outrage against bloated immunity.Housewives, college kids,page 3 types spilling onto the streets with placards and slogans. we want justice.clean the system.unprecedented in Delhi,everyone has been saying.unprecedednted in lucknow.

Mapped against the heroic sit-ins of medha patekar and the displaced narmada valley:the desperate padyatra of bhopal's gas victims stll fighting 22 years later:Irom Sharmila,forcibly kept alive by the state,tubes thrust down her throat,the lit candle might seem a bit of a dilettante affair.As protest weapons go.litlle more than a nail file.

but one cannot be too cynical about thsi gathering stir.fashionabale as it might seem,or vulnerably flickering,this is surely the awakening of conscience,the slow self recognition of a civil society.the middle class is turning on its own lumpen,demanding accountability.And one's backyard is always a good place to start.
This is a class that has habitually dismissed the warriors.

Brinda Karat? Oh,She's a headline monger,always breaking barricades and her bones to catch the camera(Willingly breaking one's own bones???)

Medha patekar?just a chronic,media hungry petrel.

arundhati roy?ha,just shrill and pretty mobile republic.

Kiran bedi?megalomaniac

irom sharmila?who?

Ck Jaanu?Yaar,where are the feel good stories?

Now,in a curious kickback,the middle class is being recast in the mould it had scorned.it has not yet grown the stomach to sit in bleaching heat and rain,break barricades and bones,embrace jail or sustain a fight over 23 years.Not yet the stomach to withstand brutal police fire with mere bows and arrows.Or even to continue the candle vigil after the cameras are switched off.but it has tasted power f its own voice.amidst the flood of filmfare awards and miss indias and malls and ekta kpoor serials,it finds itself washed slightly off course on the tip of a different wave.And is surprised by its impact.

The riptide will surely set in .the flood will come back to claim its own.the middle class will return to its malls.there will be the inevitable murmurs:nothing ever happens.

Still,the events of the last couple of months is a bit like mobile telephony.They have left an indelible stamp.watching tis attack of conscience beamed across myriad TV channels,the middle class has been critically altered.The candles have sown their wind.


Here are a few facts I thought are very strangely true...

  • The first time when u meet someone, u form an opinion. Once you get to know that person over a period of time, your opinion for that person becomes the complete opposite of what it was initially!
  • The more you say “I don’t care!”, the more you care!(heheh!)
  • A compliment by your best enemy remains etched in your mind for a longer time, than a compliment you received from your friend!
  • When you become good friends with someone, you start finding that person good looking, even if he/she isn’t conventionally good looking!
  • We all are hypocrites to some extent, no matter how much we deny it..
  • Your true confidante is you, yourself..
  • You can never hate or forget your first crush, even if he/ she was a true imagery of…say…serverus snape!(I still think snape is an interesting character!)
  • No matter how much we detest these silly superstitions, some how, mysteriously we get this fit of superstition on some big day of our life(exam, job interview, big presentation, result day..etc etc!)
  • If we beg, plead for advise from someone, we still weigh other options before following that advise.
  • No one is a true extrovert..we are all hiding some major secrets inside us.
  • We crave for unexpected holidays..and when we get them, we have no idea what to do..!
  • We are different people at home, in front of friends, at workplace, in front of strangers. And no matter how much you shake your head and give me a long list of justifications..believe me, ITS TRUE!
  • Your closest friend is a good listner…;-)

Why do Banks make you CRY????

If there's one institution tht can make you:-

1. Angry:evil:

2. Frustrated:x

3. Dejected

4. Disgusted:pale:

5. Confused:scratch:

6. Miserable:pale:

7. Happy too:D

It has got to be a bank..They make you run around all over the city, collect long forgotten documents and gawd knows wat all.

I, sadly untill yesterday, had never seen the inside of a bank. So. here I am tryin to encash a cheque n they ask for some clearance n acc no...oooops!!!Dnt have one and mom's the boss.I call up my pa n he yells-"GROW UP"..Oh no, im not angry at him.he's totally right.

Then why did I..I who cry at an average of 1 1/2 a year, find myself howling in front of the bank on the main road???

not sniffle, not drip drip but full throttle bawling..!!

How a Capacitor Works????

In a way, a capacitor is a little like a battery. Although they work in completely different ways, capacitors and batteries both store electrical energy. If you have read How Batteries Work, then you know that a battery has two terminals. Inside the battery, chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons on the other terminal. A capacitor is much simpler than a battery, as it can't produce new electrons -- it only stores them.

Lets see exactly what a capacitor is, what it does and how it's used in electronics. We'll also look at the history of the capacitor and how several people helped shape its progress.

Inside the capacitor, the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance, or dielectric. You can easily make a capacitor from two pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. It won't be a particularly good capacitor in terms of its storage capacity, but it will work.

In theory, the dielectric can be any non-conductive substance. However, for practical applications, specific materials are used that best suit the capacitor's function. Mica, ceramic, cellulose, porcelain, Mylar, Teflon and even air are some of the non-conductive materials used. The dielectric dictates what kind of capacitor it is and for what it is best suited. Depending on the size and type of dielectric, some capacitors are better for high frequency uses, while some are better for high voltage applications. Capacitors can be manufactured to serve any purpose, from the smallest plastic capacitor in your calculator, to an ultra capacitor that can power a commuter bus. NASA uses glass capacitors to help wake up the space shuttle's circuitry and help deploy space probes. Here are some of the various types of capacitors and how they are used.

Air - Often used in radio tuning circuits

Mylar - Most commonly used for timer circuits like clocks, alarms and counters

Glass - Good for high voltage applications

Ceramic - Used for high frequency purposes like antennas, X-ray and MRI machines

Super capacitor - Powers electric and hybrid cars.

In an electronic circuit, a capacitor is shown as,

When you connect a capacitor to a battery,then

-The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the negative terminal of the battery accepts electrons that the battery is producing.

-The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the positive terminal of the battery loses electrons to the battery.

Once it's charged, the capacitor has the same voltage as the battery (1.5 volts on the battery means 1.5 volts on the capacitor). For a small capacitor, the capacity is small. But large capacitors can hold quite a bit of charge. You can find capacitors as big as soda cans that hold enough charge to light a flashlight bulb for a minute or more.

Even nature shows the capacitor at work in the form of lightning. One plate is the cloud, the other plate is the ground and the lightning is the charge releasing between these two "plates." Obviously, in a capacitor that large, you can hold a huge amount of charge!

Let's say you hook up a capacitor like this,

Here you have a battery, a light bulb and a capacitor. If the capacitor is pretty big, what you will notice is that, when you connect the battery, the light bulb will light up as current flows from the battery to the capacitor to charge it up. The bulb will get progressively dimmer and finally go out once the capacitor reaches its capacity. If you then remove the battery and replace it with a wire, current will flow from one plate of the capacitor to the other. The bulb will light initially and then dim as the capacitor discharges, until it is completely out.

Ask Yourself

Important questions to ask yourself.

1. Do you make promises or commitments?

2. Do you make friends before you need them?

3. Do you have a strong will or a strong won’t?

4. The last times you failed, did you stop trying because u failed or you failed because u stopped trying?

5. What is it like to be my friend?

6. Are you making a living or a life?

7. Do you risk enough to exercise your faith on God?

8. Do you say our Father on Sunday and act like orphan on weekdays?

9. Does failure discourage or brings determinations?

10. Do you exist or do you live?

11. Is God your hope or an excuse?

12. What dominates you day?

13. How may happy selfish do you know?

14. How many people do you know who became successful at something they hate?

15. What force is more powerful than Love?

16. What is your most prevailing thought?

17. Are you running from something or to something?

18. Who is that person you need to forgive?

19. What impossible thing you believe and are planning for?

20. What is one things that you can do for someone else who has no opportunity to repay you?

How Electronic Ink Will Work

With a world full of monitors and electronic displays made with liquid crystals, light-emitting diodes and gas plasma, you probably don't think of paper as being a revolutionary display technology, but the Chinese invention of paper in 105 A.D. forever changed the way the world communicates. Without it, books might still be printed on silk scrolls that only the wealthy could afford, making literacy a rare skill.

Look around you: It would be nearly impossible to live one day without coming into contact with paper in some form. This year, the world will consume an estimated 280 million tons of paper, according to the National Association of Paper Merchants in England. That is equal to 56 trillion sheets of letter-size 20-pound bond paper. (See this question of the day on paper weight.)

For nearly 2,000 years, ink on paper was the only way to display words and images, and it still beats computer displays when it comes to portability and price. Paper also doesn't require an external power supply. Yet it does have some limitations: Once you've printed words on paper, those words cannot be changed without at least leaving some marks, and it is also difficult to carry around a large number of books.

Scientists are now close to developing a revolutionary technology that could replace paper, called electronic ink!

Making Electronic Ink

Two companies are simultaneously developing similar electronic inks -- E Ink of Cambridge, MA, and Xerox in Palo Alto, CA. At first glance, a bottle of electronic ink looks just like regular ink, but a closer examination shows something much different. Although the two companies' products vary slightly, here are the three components of both electronic inks that give them the ability to rearrange upon command:

--Millions of tiny microcapsules or cavities

--An ink or oily substance filling the microcapsules or cavities

--Pigmented chips or balls with a negative charge floating inside the microcapsule

Electronic ink can be applied to the same materials that regular ink can be printed on. In the case of a digital book, the pages would be made out of some kind of ultra-thin plastic. The ink would cover the entire page, separated by cells that resemble the cells on graph paper. Think of these cells as pixels on your computer screen, with each cell wired to microelectronics embedded in this plastic sheet. These microelectronics would then be used to apply a positive or negative charge to the microcapsules to create the desired text or images.

Xerox and E Ink are using different techniques to develop their electronic inks. To help people understand how E Ink's technology works, the company compares the millions of microcapsules inside the ink to clear beach balls. Each of these beach balls is filled with hundreds of tiny, white ping-pong balls. And instead of air, the beach ball is filled with a blue dye. If you looked at the top of this beach ball, you would see the ping-pong balls floating in the liquid, and the beach ball would appear white. But if you looked at the bottom of the ball, it would appear blue.

Now, if you were to take thousands of these beach balls and lay them out on a field, and make the ping-pong balls move between the top and bottom of the beach balls, you could make the field change color. That's the principle behind E Ink's product.

In reality, these microcapsules are only 100 microns wide, and roughly 100,000 microcapsules can fit into a square inch of paper. In each of those microcapsules there are hundreds of smaller pigmented chips. In prototypes, E Ink is currently working with white chips and blue ink, but it is working to develop other color inks that could lead to multicolor displays.

When an electrical charge is applied to the microcapsules, the chips will either rise to the top or be pulled to the bottom. When pushed to the top, the chips make the capsules look white; when they are pulled to the bottom, the viewer only sees the dark ink. Patterns of white and dark can then be created to form words and sentences.

Xerox is working on its own version of electronic ink, called electronic paper, which it first developed in the 1970s. However, instead of using paint chips floating in a dark liquid, it has produced microscopic balls that are black on one side and white on the other. Similar to E Ink's technology, these microscopic balls respond to an electrical charge, which rotates the ball from black to white to produce patterns on a page. To produce pages for digital books, Xerox is developing rubber sheets in which these microscopic balls will be suspended in an oily liquid.

One of the obstacles in developing a digital book out of electronic ink has been wiring the pages to create an electrical charge while still maintaining a paper-thin page. In this aspect, E Ink has taken the lead in developing digital books by signing an agreement with Lucent Technologies that would give E Ink the rights to use plastic transistors developed by Lucent. These tiny transistors can be printed onto a page to provide the adequate charge needed to switch the E Ink chips from one color to another.

Quotes in Praise of India

1. Will Durant, American historian: "India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages: she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all".

2. Mark Twain, American author: "India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."

3. Albert Einstein, American scientist: "We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made."

4. Max Mueller, German scholar: If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions, I should point to India.

5. Romain Rolland, French scholar : "If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India."

6. Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA: "India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border."

7. Mark Twain: "So far as I am able to judge, nothing has been left undone, either by man or nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Nothing seems to have been forgotten, nothing overlooked."

8. Keith Bellows, VP - National Geographic Society : "There are some parts of the world that, once visited, get into your heart and won̢۪t go. For me, India is such a place. When I first visited, I was stunned by the richness of the land, by its lush beauty and exotic architecture, by its ability to overload the senses with the pure, concentrated intensity of its colors, smells, tastes, and sounds... I had been seeing the world in black & white and, when brought face-to-face with India, experienced everything re-rendered in brilliant technicolor."

9. Mark Twain: "India has two million gods, and worships them all. In religion all other countries are paupers; India is the only millionaire."

10. A Rough Guide to India: "It is impossible not to be astonished by India. Nowhere on Earth does humanity present itself in such a dizzying, creative burst of cultures and religions, races and tongues. Enriched by successive waves of migration and marauders from distant lands, every one of them left an indelible imprint which was absorbed into the Indian way of life. Every aspect of the country presents itself on a massive, exaggerated scale, worthy in comparison only to the superlative mountains that overshadow it. It is this variety which provides a breathtaking ensemble for experiences that is uniquely Indian. Perhaps the only thing more difficult than to be indifferent to India would be to describe or understand India completely. There are perhaps very few nations in the world with the enormous variety that India has to offer. Modern day India represents the largest democracy in the world with a seamless picture of unity in diversity unparalleled anywhere else."

Can Water go Bad

Many people store water for emergencies like hurricanes and power failures. This is especially true in rural areas where drinking water comes from private wells. These wells are useless unless there is power to run the pump. If you are trying to store water safely, today's question is a great one!

It turns out that there are two ways for water to go bad. You can easily demonstrate the first way by filling a bucket with tap water and leaving it on the back porch for several days. After about a week, you will find that the water in the bucket contains mosquito larvae, algae and various other life forms, none of which you would want to be drinking. From this experiment, you can easily decide that storing water in an open container is a bad idea unless you have a plan to purify it when you need to drink it. Storing water in a closed container works no better if the water that you place in the container is contaminated in some way with bacteria or algae. You need to put pure water in a clean container and then process it in some way to eliminate bacterial contamination. You can process the water with heat just like you do when canning, or use a chemical like chlorine or iodine.

The second way for water to become unfit for drinking is for something to leach out of the container into the water. As an extreme example, imagine what would happen if you were to store water in a lead container. Lead would leach into the water and make it poisonous. The container you use needs to be made from a food grade material in order to avoid leaching problems. Glass, stainless steel and some plastics are food grade.

One easy way to store water is to buy purified drinking water in gallon plastic jugs at the grocery store. This water is inexpensive, free of bacterial contamination and is sealed in a food-grade container. You can store this water indefinitely.

Facts that are never True!!!!!!!

Facts that we never knew !!

Interesting !!

Read On !! :)

· Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.

· The world's youngest parents were 8 and 9 and lived in China in 1910.

· Our eyes remain the same size from birth onward, but our nose and ears never stop growing.

· You burn more calories sleeping than you do watching TV.

· A person will die from total lack of sleep sooner than from starvation. Death will occur about 10 days without sleep, while starvation takes a few weeks.

· Chewing gum while peeling onions will keep you from crying.

· Mona Lisa had no eyebrows.

· When the moon is directly overhead, you weigh slightly less.

· Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone, never telephoned his wife or mother because they were both deaf.

· "I Am." is the shortest complete sentence in the English language.

· Colgate faced big obstacle marketing toothpaste in Spanish speaking countries because Colgate translates into the command "go hang yourself."

Mathematical Joke

How did little Stuart know that he is gonna fail

even if he studies or not????????









he derived the following math logic for it

check it out!!!!!!!!









WTC Sept-11 attack (Coincidence)

This is real freaky, the last thing is even freakier!

1) New York City has 11 letters

2) Afghanistan has 11 letters.

3) Ramsin Yuseb (The terrorist who threatened to destroy the Twin Towers in 1993) has 11 letters.

4) George W Bush has 11 letters.

This could be a mere coincidence, but this gets more interesting:

1) New York is the 11th state.

2) The first plane crashing against the Twin Towers was flight
number 11.

3) Flight 11 was carrying 92 passengers. 9 + 2 = 11

4) Flight 77 which also hit Twin Towers, was carrying 65
passengers 6+5 = 11

5) The tragedy was on September 11, or 9/11 as it is now known. 9 + 1+ 1 = 11

6) The date is equal to the US emergency services telephone number
911. 9 + 1 + 1 = 11.

Sheer coincidence..?! Read on and make up your own mind:

1) The total number of victims inside all the hi-jacked planes was
254. 2 + 5 + 4 = 11.

2) September 11 is day number 254 of the calendar year. Again 2 + 5 + 4= 11.

3) The Madrid bombing took place on 3/11/2004. 3 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 4 = 11.

4) The tragedy of Madrid happened 911 days after the Twin Towers incident.

Now this is where things get totally freaky:

The most recognised symbol for the US, after the Stars & Stripes,is the Eagle.
The following verse is taken from the Quran, the Islamic holy book:

"For it is written that a son of Arabia would awaken a fearsome Eagle.
The wrath of the Eagle would be felt throughout the lands of Allah and lo,
while some of the people trembled in despair still more rejoiced:
for the wrath of the Eagle cleansed the lands of Allah and there was peace."

That verse is number 9.11 of the Quran.

Still uncovinced about all of this..?!
Try this and see how you feel afterwards,
it made my hair stand on end:

Open Microsoft Word and do the following:

1. Type in capitals Q33 NY. This is the flight number of the first
plane to hit one of the Twin Towers.

2. Highlight the Q33 NY.

3. Change the font size to 48.

4. Change the actual font to the WINGDINGS
What do you think now?!!


Chinese Call Center

"Good Wan! (Good One!)"

Caller: Hello, can I speak to Annie Wan ?

Operator: Yes, you can speak to me.

Caller : No, I want to speak to Annie Wan!

Operator: Yes I understand you want to speak to anyone.You can speak to me. Who is this?

Caller : I'm Sam Wan. And I need to talk to Annie Wan! It's urgent.

Operator: I know you are someoneand you want to talk to anyone! But what's this urgent matter about?

Caller: Well... just tell my sister Annie Wanthat our brother Noe Wan was involved in an accident. Noe Wan got injured and now Noe Wan is beingsent to the hospital. Right now, Avery Wan is on his way to the hospital.

Operator : Look, if no onewas injured and no onewas sent to the hospital, then the accident isn't an urgent matter! You may find this hilarious but I don't have time for this!

Caller : You are so rude! Who are you?

Operator: I'm Saw Ree.

Caller: Yes! You should be sorry. Now give me your name!!

Operator: That's what I said. I'm Saw Ree ..

Caller: Oh ......God!!! !

Log in & Log out Time of Companies

Very Informative

Very very Informative

Would you like to know if your mobile is original or not ?????
Press the following on your mobile*#06# and the-international mobile equipment identity number appears. Then check the 7th and 8th numbers:

  • IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 02 or 20 this means your cell phone was assembled in Emirates which is very Bad quality.
  • IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 08 or 80 this means your cell phone was manufactured in Germany which is fair quality.
  • IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 01 or 10 this means your cell phone was manufactured in Finland which is very Good.
  • IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 00 this means your cell phone was manufactured in original factory which is the best Mobile Quality.
  • IF the Seventh & Eighth digits are 13 this means your cell phone was assembled in Azerbaijan which is very Bad quality and also dangerous for your health.


Does your name begin with: A

U are not particularly romantic, but you a reinterested in action.You mean business. With you, what you see is what you get.You have no patience for flirting and can't be bothered with someone who is trying to becoy, cute, demure , and subtly enticing. You are an up-front person. You often don't get hints & you ever pass any. Brains turn you on. You must feel that your partner is! intellectually stimulating, otherwise you will find it difficult to sustain the relationship. You require loving, cuddling, wining, and dining to know that you're being appreciated. Your mate's physical attractiveness is important for you. You tend to be very Practical, & not very emotional Your choices are very good & can only lead to trouble. You are very self.

Satisfied & Egoistic....


Does your name begin with: B

You give off vibes of lazy sensuality. You enjoy being romanced, wined, and dined. You are very happy to receive gifts as an expression of the affection of your lover. You want to be pampered and know how to pamper your mate. You are private in your expression of endearments, and particular when it comes to love. You will hold off until everything meets with your approval. You can control your appetite & feelings. You require new sensations and experiences. You are willing to experiment.


Does your name begin with: C

You are a very social individual, and it is important to you to have a relationship. You require closeness and togetherness. You want the object of your affection to be socially acceptable and good-looking. You see your lover as a friend and companion. You are very sensual, Needing someone to appreciate and almost worship you. When this cannot be achieved, you have the ability to hold out on affection until you receive this.. You are an expert at controlling your desires and doing without.

Does your name begin with: D
Once you get it into your head that you want someone, you move full Steam ahead in your suit. You do not give up your quest easily. You a re nurturing and caring. If someone has a problem, this turns you on. You a re highly passionate, loyal, and intense in your involvement's, sometimes possessive and jealous. You a re very sharp & talented often with sense of humour. When people bother to look deep inside they cannot resist what they see. You are stimulated by the eccentric and unusual, having a free and open attitude. You get jealous of other people and lose your temper .

Does your name begin with: E
Your greatest need is to talk. If your date is not a good listener, you have trouble relating. A person must be intellectually stimulating or you are not interested sexually. You need a friend for a lover and a companion You hate disharmony and disruption, but you do enjoy a good argument once in a while-it seems to stir things up. You flirt a lot, for the challenge is mo re important. But once you give your heart away, you are uncompromisingly loyal. You will fall asleep with a good book. sometimes, in fact, you prefer a good book to a lover)

Does your name begin with: F
You are idealistic and romantic, putting your lover on a pedestal. You look for the very best mate you can find. You are a flirt, yet once committed, you are very loyal. You are sensuous and privately passionate. Publicly, you can be showy, extravagant, and gallant. You are a born romantic. Dramatic love scenes a re a favourite fantasy past time. You can be a very generous lover.


Does your name begin with: G
You are fastidious, seeking perfection within yourself and your lover. You respond to a lover who is your intellectual equal or superior, and one who can enhance your status. You are sensuous and know how to reach the peak of stimulation, because you work at it meticulously. You can be extremely active-never tiring out. Your duties and responsibilities take precedence over everything else. You may have difficulty getting emotionally close to people.


Does your name begin with: H
You seek a mate who can enhance your zest for life ,fun & everything You seek for. You will be very generous to your lover once you have Attained a commitment. You are very affectionate & very strong. Your gifts are actually an investment in your partner. Before the commitment, though, you tend to be very careful with your every move and equally cautious in your involvement's often as you believe that you have to look out for yourself. You are a sensual and patient lover. You will hold off till everything meets your full approval. You are a perfectionist, hard to satisfy and strong in your beliefs. Not influential, you always stand your ground. People can always count on you to stand by them in a crisis. You are a dreamer with a passion for life.

Does your name begin with: I
You have a great need to be loved, appreciated... even worshiped. You enjoy luxury, sensuality, and pleasures of the flesh. You like necking spend hours just touching feeling & exploring. You look for lovers who know what they a re doing. You are not interested in an amateur, unless that amateur wants a tutor. You are fussy and exacting about having your desires satisfied. You are willing to experiment and try new modes of expression. You bore easily and thus require adventure and change. Your commitments don't last very long & you often tend to stray. Loyalty is not one of your strong points. You are more sensual than sexual, but you are sometimes downright lustful.
Does your name begin with: J
You are blessed with a g re at deal of physical energy. When used for a good cause there is nothing to stop you, except maybe that they aren't always used for the good. (you could dance all night.) You respond to the thrill of the chase and the challenge of the mating game.You can carry on great romances in your head. At heart you a re a roamer and need to set out on your own every so often. You will carry on long- distance relationships with ease. You are idealistic and need to believe in love. You have a need to be nurtured deep within.
Does your name begin with: K
You are secretive, self-contained, and shy. You are very sexy, sensual, and passionate, but you do not let on to this. Only in intimate privacy will this part of your nature reveal itself. When it gets down to the nitty-gritty, you a re an expert. You know all the little tricks of the trade, can play any role or any game, and take your love life very seriously. You don't fool around. You have the patience to wait for the right person to come along. You are very generous & giving, often selfless. You are kind-natured & sweet, which is found to be attractive by many. You are a good friend.
Does your name begin with: L
You can be very romantic, attached to the glamour of love. Having a partner is of paramount importance to you. You are free in your expression of love and are willing to take chances, try new sexual experiences and partners, provided it's all in good taste. Brains turn you on. You must feel that your partner is intellectually stimulating, otherwise you will find it difficult to sustain the relationship. You require loving, cuddling, wining, and dining to know that you' re being appreciated. "You require loving, cuddling, wining, and dining to know that you' re being appreciated ".
Does your name begin with: M
You may appear innocent, unassuming and shy; but we know that Appearances can lie. When it comes to sex, you are no novice but something of a skilled technician. You can easily go to extrees, though, running the gamut from insatiability to boredom with the whole idea of love. You can be highly critical of you mate, seeking perfection in both of you. It is not easy to find someone who can meet your standards. You have difficulty expressing emotions and drawing close to lovers. You never give in. Winning is your prime desire - at any cost. You often love friends and family and you live for the moment.
Does your name begin with: N
You are emotional and intense. When involved in a relationship, you Throw your entire being into it. Nothing stops you; there are no holds barred. You are all-consuming and crave someone who is equally passionate and intense. You believe in total freedom. You are willing to try anything and everything. Your supply of energy is inexhaustible. You want to be pampered and know how to pamper your mate. You also enjoy mothering your mate. You often have the greatest love affairs all by yourself, in your head. You are very imaginative.
Does your name begin with: O
You are very interested in fun activities yet secretive and shy about your desires. You can rechannel much of your energy into making money and/or seeking we. You can easily have extended periods of celibacy. You are a passionate, compassionate lover, requiring the same qualities From your mate. Love is serious business; thus you demand intensity, diversity and is willing to try anything or anyone. Sometimes your passions turn to possessiveness, which must be kept in check.
Does your name begin with: P
You are very conscious of social proprieties. You wouldn't think of Doing anything that might harm your image or Reputation. Appearances count. Therefore , you require a good-looking partner. You also require an intelligent partner. Oddly enough, you may view your partner as your enemy...a good fight stimulates those vibes. You are relatively free of hang- ups.You are willing to experiment and try new ways of doing things.You are very social and sensual; you enjoy flirting and need a good deal of physical gratification.
Does your name begin with: Q
You require constant activity and stimulation. You have tremendous physical energy. It is not easy for a partner to keep up with you. You a re an enthusiastic lover and tend to be attracted to people because of their ethnic groups. You need romance, hearts and flowers, and conversation to turn you on and keep you going.

Does your name begin with: R
You are a no-nonsense, action-oriented individual. You need someone who can keep pace with you and who is your intellectual equal-the smarter the better. You are turned on more quickly by a great mind than by a great body. However, physical attractiveness is not very important to you. You have to be proved to be worthy for a partner. You have a need to prove yourself the best. You want feedback on your performance. You are open, stimulating & romantic.


Does your name begin with: S
For you, it is pleasure before business. You can be romantically idealistic to a fault and is capable of much sensuality. But you never loose control of your emotions. Once you make the commitment you stick like glue. You could get jealous and possessive. You tend to be very selfish often regarding yourself as the only human being on the planet.. You like being the centre of attention. You are very caring sensitive, private & sometimes very passive. Turned on by soft lights, romantic thoughts. When it gets down to the nitty-gritty, you a re an expert. You know all the little tricks of the trade, can play any role, or any game, and take your love life very seriously. You don't fool around. You have the patience to wait for the rightperson to come along. You a re very generous & amp; giving, often selfless. You are kind nature & sweet which is found to be attractive by many. You a re a good friend.
Does your name begin with: T
You are very sensitive, private & sometimes very passive. You like someone who takes the lead. You get turned on by music, soft lights & romantic thoughts. You fantasize & tend to fall in & out of love soon. When in love you are romantic, idealistic, mushy & extremely. You enjoy having your senses & your feelings stimulated, titillated & teased. You are a great flirt. You can make your relationships fit your dreams, all in your own head. Once you put your mind to something you manage to stand by it and see your dreams through. You aren't very good at expressing your feelings. You like things your own way. You do not like change, you like to hold on to things. This may not always be good because if given an opportunity things may develop into great things. You work your way to the top. Attention must be given to what others say because even though you don't want to hear it their advice may turn out to save your life.
Does your name begin with: U
You are enthusiastic & at your happiest when in love. When not in love you' re in love with love and always looking for someone to adore . You see romance as challenge. You are a roamer & needs adventure , excitement freedom. You enjoy giving gifts & looking good. You are willing to put others feelings above yours.
Does your name begin with: V
You are individualistic & you need freedom, space & excitement. You wait till you know someone well before committing yourself. Knowing someone means psyching her/him out. You feel a need to get into his/her head to see what makes him tick. You a re attracted to eccentric types. You believe that age is no barrier. You are good at responding to danger, fear & suspense.
Does your name begin with: W
You are very proud, determined & re fuses to take no for an answer when it come to love. Your ego is at stake all the time. You a re romantic, idealistic, often in love with love itself, not seeing your partner for who she or he really is. You feel deeply about love & tends to throw all of your self into a relationship. Nothing is too good for your lover. You like playing love games.
Does your name begin with: X
You need constant stimulation because you get bored quickly. You can handle more than 1 relationship at a time with ease. You can't shut off your mind. You can do 2 things at once. You are very talented.
Does your name begin with: Y
You are sensual & very independent. If you can't have it your way, you will forget the whole thing. You want to control your relationships which doesn't work out too well. You respond to physical stimulation. However if you can make money you will give up the pleasures of the flesh for the moment. You have a need to prove yourself the best. You want feedback on your performance. You are open, stimulating & romantic.

Does your name begin with: Z
You are very romantic but show feels that to love means to suffer. You wind up serving your mate & attracting people who have unusual trouble. You see yourself as a lover's saviour.

A Shut Window

A rough walk ,

on smooth grass.
My senses slithers
on the green pastures.
i can only see ,
wat it feels to be
"the child of heaven".
i thought once,
May be one day ,
he opens the window.
and let me out ,
to touch what i see.
Till then i knew ,
the pastures will be green
.and will be beautiful,
watever will be seen.
Things have changed ,
no more im a child.
the child within me,
has lost his pride.
Entangled in the questionsof
"do or not to do"?
Scurrying fast,
through the pace of time.
questioning the truth,
my answers have lost rhyme.
i saw u then,
through hazy glass.
when i was eleven.
but no more
i can ,be the
"child of heaven".
untill i distinguish,
the fake from true.
Till the window is shut,
between me and you.

ATM Pin Reversal


If you should ever be forced by a robber to withdraw money from an ATM machine , you can notify the police by entering your Pin # in reverse.
For example if your pin number is 1234 then you would put in 4321. The ATM recognizes that your pin number is backwards from the ATM card you placed in the machine.The machine will still give you the money you requested , but unknown to the robber , the police will be immediately dispatched to help you.This information was recently broadcasted on TV and it states that it is seldom used because people don't know it exists.

6 Ways to make People Like you[:)]

Six Ways to make People Like

Principle 1: Become genuinely interested in other people.
A simple way to make a good impression. The ex-pression one wears on one's face if far more important than the clothes one wears on one's back. Actions speak louder than words, and a smile says, " I like you. You make me happy. I am glad to see you." You must have a good time meeting people i f you expect them to have a good time meeting you. You don't feel like smiling? Then what? Two things. First, force yourself to smile. If you are alone, force yourself to whistle or hum a tune or sing. Act as if you were already happy, and that will tend to make you happy. "Action seems to follow feeling, but really action and feeling go together; and by regulating the action, which is under the more direct control of the will, we can indirectly regulate the feeling, which is not." -William James. Happiness doesn't depend on outward conditions. It depends on inner conditions. It isn't what you have or who you are or where you are or what you are doing that makes you happy or unhappy. It is what you think about it. "There is nothing either good or bad," said Shakespeare, "but thinking makes it so." Your smile is a messenger of your good will. Your smile brightens the lives of all who see it. To someone who has seen a dozen people frown, scowl or turn their faces away, your smile is like the sun breaking through the clouds.

Principle 2: Smile. [:)]
If you don't do this, you are headed for trouble.The average person is more interested in his or her own name than all the other names on earth put together. Remember that name and call it easily, and you have paid a subtle and very effective compliment. But forget it or misspell it-and you have plac e yourself at a sharp disadvantage. Whenever you meet a new acquaintance, find out his or her complete name and some facts about his or her family, business or political opinions. Fix all these facts well in mind as part of the picture, and the next time you meet that person, even if it was a year later, you will be able to shake hands, inquire after the family, and ask about the hollyhocks in the backyard. Sometimes it is difficult to remember a name, particularly if it is hard to pronounce. Rather than even try to learn it, many people ignore it or call the person by an easy nickname. Most people don't remember names, for the simple reason that they don't take the time and energy necessary to concentrate and repeat and fix names indelibly in their minds. If you don't hear the name distinctly say excuse me I didn't get your name clearly. Then, if it is an unusual name, ask how it is spelled. Use the person's name several times in the conversation; try to associate it in your mind with the person's featur es, ex-pression and general appearance. Then, when you are alone write the name down on a piece of paper, look at it, and concentrate on it, fix it securely in your mind, in this way you will gain an eye impression of the name as well as an ear impression.

Principle 3: Remember that a person's name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language.
An easy way to become a good conversationalist Listen intently; listen because you are genuinely interested. That kind of listening is one of the highest compliments we can pay anyone. The chronic kicker, even the most violent critic, will frequently soften and be subdued in the presence of a patient, sympathetic listener-a listener who will be silent with the irate fault-finger dilates like a king cobra and spews the poison out of his system. Be more eager to hear what a person has to say then even they are to tell it. Many people prefer good list eners to good talkers, but the ability to listen seems rarer than almost any other good trait. All we want when we are in trouble is a friendly, sympathetic listener to unburden yourself. That is frequently all the irritated customer wants, and the dissat isfied employee or the hurt friend. If you want to know how to make people shun you and laugh at you behind your back and even despise you, here is the recipe: Never listen to anyone for long. Talk incessantly about yourself. If you have an idea while the other person is talking, don't wait for him or her to finish: bust right in and interrupt in the middle of a sentence. If you aspire to be a good conversationalist, be an attentive listener. To be interesting, be interested. Ask questions that other persons will enjoy answering. Encourage them to talk about themselves and their accomplishments.

Principle 4: Be a good listener.
Encourage others to talk about themselves. How to interest people.The royal road to a person's heart is to talk about the things he or she treasures most. Make an effort to find out what interests the person then get them talking about it. Talking in terms of the other person's interests pays off for both parties. When asked what reward he got from it, Mr. Herzig responded that he not only received a different reward from each person but that in general the reward had been an enlargement of his life each time he spoke to someone.

Principle 5: Talk in terms of the other person's interests.
How to make people like you instantly.Ask yourself " What is there about him or her that I can honestly admire?" That is sometimes a hard question to answer, especially with strangers. You want approval of those with whom you come in contact. You want recognition of your true worth. You want a feeling that your are important in our little world. You don't want to listen to cheap, insincere flattery, but you do crave sincere appreciation. So let's obey the Golden Rule, and give unto others what we would have others give unto us. How? When? Where? The answer is all the time, everywhere. Use little phrases such as "I'm sorry to trouble you, ___." "Would you please ___?" "Won't you please?" "Would you mind?" "Thank you." The unvarnished truth is that almost all the people you meet feel themselves superior to you in some way, and a sure way to their hearts is to let them realize in some subtle way that you recognize their importance, and recognize it sincerely. Talk to people about themselves and they will listen for hours.

Principle 6: Make the other person feel important-and do it sincerely.
In a Nutshell: Six ways to make people like you Become genuinely interested in other people. Smile. Remember that a person's name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language. Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves. Talk in terms of the other person's interests. Make the other person feel important-and do it sincerely.

Top 21 things an Indian does after returning from US!!!!!!!

  • Tries to use credit cards in a roadside hotel.

  • Drinks and carries mineral water and always speaks of being health conscious.
  • Sprays deo so that he doesn't need to take bath.

  • Sneezes and says 'Excuse me'.

  • Says "Hey" instead of "Hi". Says "Yogurt" instead of "Curds".Says "Cab" instead of "Taxi". Says "Candy" instead of "Chocolate". Says "Cookie" instead of "Biscuit". Says " Free Way " instead of "Highway".Says "got to go" instead of "Have to go". Says "Oh" instead of "Zero", (for 704, he will say Seven Oh Four Instead of Seven Zero Four)

  • Doesn't forget to crib about the air pollution. Keeps cribbing every time he steps out.

  • Says all the distances in Miles (Not in Kilo Meters), and counts in Millions. (Not in Lakhs)

  • Tries to figure all the prices in Dollars as far is possible (but deep inside multiplies by 43).

  • Tries to see the % of fat on the cover of a milk pocket.

  • When he needs to say Z (zed), he never says Z (Zed), instead repeats "Zee" several times, and if the other person is unable to get it, then says X, Y Zee(but never says Zed)

  • Writes the date in MM/DD/YYYY. On watching traditional DD/MM/YYYY, says "Oh! British Style!!!!"

  • Makes fun of Indian Standard Time and the Indian Road Conditions.

  • Even after 2 months, complaints about "Jet Lag".

  • Avoids eating spicy food.

  • Tries to drink "Diet Coke", instead of Normal Coke. Eats Pizza instead of Dosa.

  • Tries to complain about any thing in India as if he is experiencing it for the first time. Asks questions etc. about India as though its his first visit to India

  • Pronounces "schedule" as "skejule", and "module" as "mojule".

  • Looks suspiciously towards any Hotel/Dhaba food. Few more important ones.
  • From the luggage bag, does not remove the stickers of the Airways by which he traveled back to India , even after 4 months of arrival.

  • Takes the cabin luggage bag to short visits in India and tries to roll the bag on Indian Roads.

The Ultimate one

  • Tries to begin any conversation with "In US ..." or "When I was in US..."

FACTS of LIFE!!!!!

Bank Balance

First Week : Rs 10,000

Second Week : Rs 1,000

Third Week : Rs 100

Fourth week : Rs 10


First Week : Auto ("I can afford it")

Second Week : Share Auto ("I would like to share. I am selfless!")

Third Week : Bus ("Public figures should travel by public transport")

Fourth week : Walk ("Good for health")

Girl friends:

First Week : Eena, Meena, Tina ("I can BUY love")

Second Week : Meena, Tina ("I have enough girl friends")

Third Week : Tina ("I am loyal to her")

Fourth week : "Huh! There is no pure love on earth!"

Mobile Maintenance:

First Week : Frequent outgoing calls ("This is what mobile is invented for")

Second Week : Restricted outgoing calls ("I should not create unnecessary traffic on

mobile lines")

Third Week : Rare outgoing calls ("Mobile should be used in urgent situations only")

Fourth week : Only incoming calls ("I am not going to call her until she calls me")

And last....but not the least...


First Week : "Come, let's go to Chennai and freak out!"

Second Week : "Man, there is nothing in Chennai. Let's go to pondi."

Third Week : "The best place to booze on earth is our house itself. what say?"

Fourth week : "Drinking is injurious to health"

Mobile Betting Hazards

The future of betting lies in mobile phones, as latest researches claims that until the year 2009 the mobile gambling market's revenues are estimated to be $19.3 billion. While this news might give pleasure to some, others are concerned about the sources of this leap of profits.

The mobile betting industry's high accessibility is the main reason for its high revenues. While the high accessibility is the core pride of this commerce, that is also its greatest problem. The high openness allows youth to bet using mobile phones. As of now the mobile gambling industry lacks the means to block underage users.

A large social responsibility now lay on these gamble-content companies. If one think that having a credit card is a sufficient way in order to prevent underage user's access one should revise the situation. Many teens all over the world now own credit cards and the procedures for denying their access from adult content lack efficiency and flexibility.

Software companies have realized the vast potential in content filters and they're on the move to produce these required filters, but until then the danger of gambling-content exposition of the underage users exists. If you're a concerned parent and you're worried that your child might be exposed to gambling via his cellular phone then you should follow a few effortless tips:

- Monitor you're kids cellular phone bills. Any high charges, which can not be explained by simple in/out calls fees should be followed by a call to your cellular company. Demand a more detailed bill to be sent to your residence.

- Check your kid's credit card bill from time to time. Gambling commissions are not always as high as one might imagine. Look for company names that sound a little gambling related like "Mobile Spades" or "Bet'mobile".

- Make sure that your kid's cellular phone supports content filters and contact your cellular company to ensure that they are working properly.

- If a content's filter is unavailable, consider buying your children low-tech mobile phone which will prevent them from using it to gamble since it will not be able to communicate with mobile gambling sites.

Though it might sound as you're damaging your children's privacy eventually it's for their own good. The future of any child lies in his parents hands.

How Electronic Gates Work

The digital devices depend on Boolean gates. The one way to implement gates involves relays. However, no modern computer uses relays -- it uses "chips."

What if you want to experiment with Boolean gates and chips? What if you would like to build your own digital devices? It turns out that it is not that difficult. Lets see how you can experiment with all of the gates in the Boolean logic. We will talk about where you can get parts, how you can wire them together, and how you can see what they are doing. In the process, you will open the door to a whole new universe of technology.

The gates are the building blocks of all digital devices. If you would like to experiment with these gates so you can try things out yourself, the easiest way to do it is to purchase something called TTL chips and quickly wire circuits together on a device called a solderless breadboard. Let's talk a little bit about the technology and the process so you can actually try it out!

If you look back at the history of computer technology, you find that all computers are designed around Boolean gates. The technologies used to implement those gates, however, have changed dramatically over the years. The very first electronic gates were created using relays. These gates were slow and bulky. Vacuum tubes replaced relays. Tubes were much faster but they were just as bulky, and they were also plagued by the problem that tubes burn out (like light bulbs). Once transistors were perfected (transistors were invented in 1947), computers started using gates made from discrete transistors. Transistors had many advantages: high reliability, low power consumption and small size compared to tubes or relays. These transistors were discrete devices, meaning that each transistor was a separate device. Each one came in a little metal can about the size of a pea with three wires attached to it. It might take three or four transistors and several resistors and diodes to create a gate.

In the early 1960s, integrated circuits (ICs) were invented. Transistors, resistors and diodes could be manufactured together on silicon "chips." This discovery gave rise to SSI (small scale integration) ICs. An SSI IC typically consists of a 3-mm-square chip of silicon on which perhaps 20 transistors and various other components have been etched. A typical chip might contain four or six individual gates. These chips shrank the size of computers by a factor of about 100 and made them much easier to build.

As chip manufacturing techniques improved, more and more transistors could be etched onto a single chip. This led to MSI (medium scale integration) chips containing simple components, such as full adders, made up of multiple gates. Then LSI (large scale integration) allowed designers to fit all of the components of a simple microprocessor onto a single chip. The 8080 processor, released by Intel in 1974, was the first commercially successful single-chip microprocessor. It was an LSI chip that contained 4,800 transistors. VLSI (very large scale integration) has steadily increased the number of transistors ever since. The first Pentium processor was released in 1993 with 3.2 million transistors, and current chips can contain up to 20 million transistors.

In order to experiment with gates, we are going to go back in time a bit and use SSI ICs. These chips are still widely available and are extremely reliable and inexpensive. You can build anything you want with them, one gate at a time. The specific ICs we will use are of a family called TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic, named for the specific wiring of gates on the IC). The chips we will use are from the most common TTL series, called the 7400 series. There are perhaps 100 different SSI and MSI chips in the series, ranging from simple AND gates up to complete ALUs (arithmetic logic units).

The 7400-series chips are housed in DIPs (dual inline packages). As pictured on the right, a DIP is a small plastic package with 14, 16, 20 or 24 little metal leads protruding from it to provide connections to the gates inside. The easiest way to construct something from these gates is to place the chips on a solderless breadboard. The breadboard lets you wire things together simply by plugging pieces of wire into connection holes on the board.

All electronic gates need a source of electrical power. TTL gates use 5 volts for operation. The chips are fairly particular about this voltage, so we will want to use a clean, regulated 5-volt power supply whenever working with TTL chips. Certain other chip families, such as the 4000 series of CMOS chips, are far less particular about the voltages they use. CMOS chips have the additional advantage that they use much less power. However, they are very sensitive to static electricity, and that makes them less reliable unless you have a static-free environment to work in. Therefore, we will stick with TTL here.

How much power does a small transformer consume if it is plugged in but not doing anything?

Tons of products use transformers. Walk around your home and you probably see them everywhere. In my house, I found them attached to my printer, scanner, speakers, answering machine, cordless phone, electric screwdriver, electric drill, baby monitor, clock radio, camcorder… You get the idea. A typical home probably has five to 10 of these little transformers plugged into the wall at any given time.

It turns out that these transformers consume power whenever they are plugged into the wall, whether they are connected to a device or not. They also waste power when powering a device.

If you have ever felt one and it was warm, that is wasted energy turned to heat. The power consumption is not large -- on the order of 1 to 5 watts per transformer. But it does add up. Let's say that you have 10 of them, and they consume 5 watts each. That means that 50 watts are being wasted constantly. If a kilowatt-hour costs a dime in your area, that means you are spending a dime every 20 hours. That's about $44 every year down the drain. Or, think of it this way -- there are roughly 100 million households in the United States. If each household wastes 50 watts on these transformers, that's a total of 5 billion watts. As a nation, that's half a million dollars wasted every hour, or $4,380,000,000 wasted every year! Think of what you could do with 4 billion dollars…

Where these small loads really take a toll is in remote locations powered by things like solar cells and wind generators. In these systems, you are paying something on the order of $10 to $20 per watt (once you add up the cost of the solar cells, the batteries to store the power, the power regulators and inverter, etc.). Fifty watts at $20 per watt means that you have to spend an additional $1,000 just to power the transformers. In these kinds of systems, small loads are something you avoid by unplugging the transformers when not in use or by eliminating the transformer and powering the device straight from the battery bank to improve efficiency.

However, the added electricity expense is offset by the manufacturing cost savings passed along to the customer, hopefully, as a lower product selling price. For example, it costs a manufacturer considerably less to manufacture and stock one universal "flavor" of printer that runs on 12 volts DC. The manufacturer then packages the printer with a country-dependent voltage AC wall transformer for the country it's being sold in. When a new version of the device comes out, the manufacturer doesn't need to retool the power supply

Difference between a fluorescent light and a neon light

A neon light is the sort of light you see used in advertising signs. These signs are made of long, narrow glass tubes, and these tubes are often bent into all sorts of shapes. The tube of a neon light can spell out a word, for example. These tubes emit light in different colors.

A fluorescent light, on the other hand, is most often a long, straight tube that produces white light. You see fluorescent lights in offices, stores and some home fixtures.

The idea behind a neon light is simple. Inside the glass tube there is a gas like neon, argon or krypton at low pressure. At both ends of the tube there are metal electrodes. When you apply a high voltage to the electrodes, the neon gas ionizes, and electrons flow through the gas. These electrons excite the neon atoms and cause them to emit light that we can see. Neon emits red light when energized in this way. Other gases emit other colors.

A fluorescent light works on a similar idea but it has an extra step. Inside a fluorescent light is low-pressure mercury vapor. When ionized, mercury vapor emits ultraviolet light. Human eyes are not sensitive to ultraviolet light (although human skin is -- see How Sunburns and Sun Tans Work!). Therefore, the inside of a fluorescent light is coated with a phosphor. A phosphor is a substance that can accept energy in one form (for example, energy from a high-speed electron as in a TV tube -- see How Television Works) and emit the energy in the form of visible light. In a fluorescent lamp, the phosphor accepts the energy of ultraviolet photons and emits visible photons.

The light we see from a fluorescent tube is the light given off by the phosphor that coats the inside of the tube (the phosphor fluoresces when energized, hence the name). The light of a neon tube is the colored light that the neon atoms give off directly.

Inside a Cell Phone!!!!

On a "complexity per cubic inch" scale, cell phones are some of the most intricate devices people use on a daily basis. Modern cell phones can process millions of calculations per second in order to compress and decompress the voice stream. If you have read "How Cell Phones Work", you know that they can transmit and receive on hundreds of FM channels, switching channels in sync with base stations as the phone moves between cells.

If you ever take a cell phone apart you will find that it contains just a few individual parts:

-A microscopic microphone
-A speaker
-An LCD or plasma display
-A keyboard not unlike the one we saw in a TV remote control
-An antenna
-A battery

-An amazing circuit board containing the guts of the phone

The circuit board is the heart of the system.
Here is one from a typical Ericsson cell phone:

In this picture several of the components are identified. Starting from the left you the see the Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog conversion chips. You can learn more about A-to-D and D-to-A conversion and its importance to digital audio in How CDs Work. The DSP is a "Digital Signal Processor" -- a highly customized processor designed to perform signal manipulation calculations at high speed. This DSP is rated at about 40 MIPS (Millions of Instructions per Second) and handles all the signal compression and decompression. The microprocessor (Ericsson phones use an ASIC version of the Z-80) and memory handle all of the housekeeping chores for the keyboard and display, deal with command and control signaling with the base station and also coordinate the rest of the functions on the board. The RF and power section handles power management and recharging and also deals with the hundreds of FM channels. Finally the RF (Radio Frequency) amplifiers handle signals in and out of the antenna.

What is amazing is that all of that functionality -- which only 30 years ago would have filled the entire floor of an office building -- now fits into a package that sits comfortably in the palm of your hand.

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